A varicocoele (pronounced var-uh-ko-seel and sometimes spelled varicocele) is usually harmless, sometimes with few or no symptoms. However, they can be associated with male infertility - it is estimated that around 15% of men will have a varicocoele but in men with fertility problems this increases to 40%.
Signs and symptoms
The veins carry blood away from the testicles towards the heart - small valves within the veins prevent blood flowing in the other direction. However, if these valves do not work properly, blood can backflow increasing the pressure within the veins and causing them to become enlarged, creating a varicocoele.
- A dull ache in one or both testicles
- A dragging or heavy feeling in the scrotum
- Swelling in the scrotum (this is often described as feeling like "a bag of worms")
- The testicle on the side of the swelling is often smaller, due to alterations in blood flow
In order to make an accurate diagnosis the doctor will take a medical history and will examine the scrotum. In order to confirm the diagnosis an ultrasound scan of the area may be recommended. The majority of varicocoeles are small and do not produce symptoms. In these cases treatment is not usually required. However, treatment may be recommended if the varicocoele:
- Produces unpleasant symptoms
- Looks particularly unsightly
- Affects fertility
- Impairs the growth of the testicle (this is particularly important in children and adolescents)
Surgical treatment involves tying off (ligating) the affected vein so that blood is redirected into other, healthy veins. The two different surgical techniques used to achieve this are open surgery and laparoscopic surgery. Both have similar success rates but laparoscopic surgery tends to have a quicker recovery time. Both types of surgery are performed on a day-stay basis under a general anaesthetic.
Another treatment technique is varicocoele embolisation. This non-surgical technique is performed by an interventional radiologist (specialist x-ray doctor). It involves making a small incision in a vein in the groin or neck and uses x-ray guidance to thread a thin tube (catheter) into the varicocoele. A small metal coil is threaded through the tube and released into the affected vein. The coil blocks blood flow to the bad vein and redirects it to other, healthy veins. Sometimes a special solution that causes scarring (a sclerosing solution) is used to block off the affected vein instead of a coil.
Varicocoele embolisation has a quick recovery time and has the advantage of not requiring a general anaesthetic.
Mayo Clinic (2014). Varicocele (Web Page). Rochester, NY: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/varicocele/basics/definition/con-20024164 [Accessed: 13/06/17]
O'Toole, M.T. (Ed.) (2013). Varicocele. Mosby's Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing & Health Professionals. (9th ed.) St. Louis, MI: Elsevier Mosby