What is middle ear infection (otitis media)?The ear is made up of three different sections: the outer ear, the middle ear, and the inner ear. These parts all work together so you can hear and process sounds. The outer and middle ear are separated by the eardrum – a very thin piece of skin that vibrates when hit by sound waves.
This page deals with middle ear infection (otitis media), which is the infection / inflammation of the air-filled space behind the eardrum. This space can become blocked and filled with mucus (fluid), which can become infected, causing inflammation.
There are two types of middle ear infection. An acute infection starts suddenly and lasts for a short period of time, while a chronic ear infection is one that does not get better or keeps coming back. Chronic ear infection can result in long-term damage to the ear.
Sometimes fluid will remain in the middle ear after an ear infection, causing "glue ear", a relatively common condition that is often undetected among New Zealand pre-schoolers. Glue ear can adversely affect hearing and may take several weeks to resolve. Children with a suspected ear infection, or who have difficulty hearing, should see a doctor. Children with evidence of damage to the inside of the ear, hearing loss, or language learning delay are likely to be referred to an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist (otolaryngologist). Outer ear infection (otitis externa) is characteristically different to middle ear infection. This is a skin infection in the outer ear canal which may start as an itch and develop into infection causing inflammation. Sometimes referred to as swimmer’s ear, this kind of infection can normally be treated effectively with ear drops from your doctor or pharmacist.
CausesA middle ear infection often begins as a common cold, influenza (flu), sinusitis, or strep throat infection. The nose and throat are connected to the ear by the eustachian tubes; bacteria enter the nose or throat and travel up the eustachian tubes to the middle ear. The accumulation of fluid in a blocked eustachian tube may increase the pressure within the middle ear causing pain and ear drum rupture. Although the ear drum will repair itself, frequent rupture (which can occur with chronic ear infection) may result in the development of scar tissue on the ear drum and hearing loss. Middle ear infections are common in children because their eustachian tubes are narrow and easily blocked.
- Younger age (children aged six months to two years)
- Group child care
- Bottle feeding infants while they are lying down
- Seasonal factors (autumn and winter)
- Poor air quality (exposure to tobacco smoke or high levels of air pollution).
Symptoms and diagnosis
Typical signs and symptoms of middle ear infection include:
- A feeling of pressure or blockage in the ear
- Earache - pain in the ear that is sharp, dull, or throbbing
- Muffled hearing
- Discharge from the ear, known as runny ear
- Ringing in the ears (tinnitus)
- Dizziness or loss of balance
- Vomiting and diarrhea.
Specific signs that your baby may have an ear infection include crying or grizzling more than usual, they keep touching their ear, and/or they have a discharge from the ear. An older child may show some of these signs or complain of having a sore ear.
To diagnose ear infection, a doctor will likely use an otoscope, which is an specialised instrument, with a light and magnifying glass, to look inside the ear to detect fluid behind the eardrum. A pneumatic otoscope is a special type of otoscope that allows the doctor to gently puff air against the eardrum. The puff of air should cause the eardrum to move. If the middle ear is filled with fluid there will be little or no movement of the eardrum.
Note, earache is a common symptom of middle ear infection but not all earaches are caused by a middle ear infection. A build-up of ear wax in the outer ear, or changes in altitude or air pressure, are examples of other causes of blockage or earache.
Ear infections usually clear up on their own, so treatment may begin with managing pain and close monitoring of the condition. However, ear infection in infants and severe cases are likely to require treatment with antibiotic medication. Amoxicillin is the antibiotic of choice for treating acute otitis media in patients who are not allergic to penicillin.
The antibiotic should be taken exactly as directed and until the course has been finished. Babies or children should be taken back to the doctor or health nurse once the course of antibiotic has been finished to confirm that the infection has cleared up properly. An earlier return visit to the doctor may be necessary if there has been no improvement in your child’s symptoms. The doctor may want to try a different antibiotic.
After seeing your doctor, self-treatment may help to relieve symptoms, including:
- Holding a moist warm face cloth or wheat bag against the infected ear
- Taking paracetamol or ibuprofen for relief of pain or fever
- Lying with the affected ear against your pillow, or sitting propped up in bed
- Gently washing the outer ear with soap and a face cloth to remove any discharge
- Keeping background noise in the home to a minimum.
You should never use cotton buds to clean your ears or your baby’s ears, or put anything into the ear that has not been prescribed by a doctor, as the eardrum is delicate and can be easily damaged.
The risk of middle ear infections in babies can be reduced by keeping rooms warm and dry, ensuring a smoke-free environment and breast feeding for as long as possible (preferably longer than six months). Showing older children how to blow their nose properly can also help prevent ear infection. Children's vaccinations should also be kept up to date.
Taking precautions to avoid catching a cold or flu will also reduce the risk of developing a middle ear infection. This can be achieved by washing hands frequently, not sharing eating and drinking utensils, covering the mouth when sneezing, and getting a seasonal flu vaccination.
The use of a nasal decongestant during a cold, influenza, or sinusitis, may also help to prevent an ear infection.
Ministry of Health
Healthline 0800 611 116
Royal New Zealand Plunket Society
PlunketLine 0800 933 922
Gribben B, et al. (2012). The incidence of acute otitis media in New Zealand children under five years of age in the primary care setting. J Prim Health Care. 2012;4(3):205-12.
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Ministry of Health (2016). Ear infections, earache and glue ear (Pamphlet). Wellington: New Zealand Government Ministry of Health. https://www.healthed.govt.nz/system/files/resource-files/HE1414_Ear_infections_earache_glue_and_ear.pdf
O’Toole, M.T. (Ed.) (2013). Otitis media. Mosby’s Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing & Health Professions (9th ed.). St Louis, MI: Elsevier Mosby.
Waseem, M. (2017). Otitis media (Web Page). Medscape Drugs and Diseases. New York, NY: WebMD LLC. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/994656-overview [Accessed 23/01/2018]
Reviewed: January 2018