Computer stethoscope med

Southern Cross Medical Library

Southern Cross Medical Library information is necessarily of a general nature. Always seek specific medical advice for treatment appropriate to you. For more articles go to the Medical Library index page.

Croup - causes, symptoms, treatment

 
Croup is an infection of the upper airways that occurs primarily in children. The infection obstructs breathing and the characteristic symptom is a barking cough. Home treatment is successful for most cases of croup.

General information

Croup is an acute (short-lasting) infectious childhood illness of the upper respiratory system, involving the vocal cords (larynx), windpipe (trachea), and upper airways of the lungs (bronchial tubes).

Croup most commonly occurs in children between six months and three years of age. It rarely occurs in children aged over six years. Croup is contagious, especially during the first few days of illness. It is mainly spread by airborne infectious droplets sneezed or coughed by infected children. It can also be spread via infected mucus on surfaces and objects such as toys. Most cases of croup are mild. Nevertheless, children with croup can become seriously ill so it is important to monitor their symptoms. 

Causes

Croup is usually caused by a viral infection. Many different viruses can be responsible for croup, including common cold and influenza (flu) viruses. Very rarely, croup may be caused by a bacterial infection. Many children who are infected with viruses that cause croup will not get croup, but will develop symptoms of a cold. 

Signs and symptoms

The differentiating symptom of croup is a cough that sounds like a barking seal and a harsh raspy noise when breathing in (called stridor). These symptoms are due to swelling of the vocal cords and windpipe resulting in narrowing of the airway, which makes breathing difficult.

These distinctive symptoms are preceded by fever, mild hoarseness and sore throat, and other cold-like symptoms.

Children have small airways and hence are more susceptible to having more marked symptoms with croup, especially children aged less than three years old.

Symptoms usually appear at night or become worse at night.

Spasmodic croup is a type of croup that causes coughing spasms (continuous coughing) that occur during the night and early morning. A barky cough and stridor is heard during the spasms. The spasms usually do not occur during the day and your child may seem better in terms of their breathing and hoarseness during the day.

The major concern in croup is progressive breathing difficulty as the air passages narrow. Close monitoring for breathing difficulties is important during the early stages of the illness, especially at night. Signs and symptoms of serious breathing problems include: 

  • Struggling to breath (worse than the noisy breathing)
  • Excessive drooling or difficulty swallowing
  • Bluish discolouration of the skin or lips (cyanosis)
  • Sucking in of the chest, and rapid breathing
  • Makes noisy, high-pitched breathing sounds (stridor) both when inhaling and exhaling

Although only a small percentage of children develop breathing difficulties serious enough to require hospitalisation, you should take your child to the nearest emergency department of dial 111 immediately if these signs are observed. 

Diagnosis

Croup is diagnosed by a doctor observing a child’s breathing, listening to their chest with a stethoscope, and examining their throat. X-rays and other tests may be required to rule out other illnesses. 

Treatment

Self-care measures at home are usually sufficient to treat the majority of cases of croup. Medical treatment is rarely required. Croup usually resolves on its own within three to six days.

Home care
Croup can be alarming for a child; hence comfort and reassurance is an important part of treatment.

Cool air may reduce vocal cord swelling and help breathing. This can be achieved by sitting near an open window (while ensuring that your child is warmly clothed). Holding your child in an upright position may also make breathing easier for them.  Do not let anyone smoke around your child.

Over-the-counter paracetamol and ibuprofen are helpful for pain relief and fever. However, aspirin should be avoided in the treatment of croup and other viral illnesses in children due to the possible association of aspirin with Reye’s syndrome, which is a serious illness causing liver and brain swelling.

Use of over-the-counter decongestants, cough and cold medications are not usually recommend because they are ineffective in children and can cause unwanted adverse effects.

Fluid intake is encouraged to avoid dehydration.

Medical care
If symptoms continue beyond three to five days or worsen your doctor may prescribe a corticosteroid to reduce inflammation in the airways. Epinephrine is also effective in reducing airway inflammation but its effects are not long-lasting.

Antibiotics are rarely used because they are ineffective against viruses, which are the most common cause of croup. Antibiotics are reserved for those rare occasions when a bacterial infection causes croup or occurs at the same time as croup. 

Prevention

Because croup is most contagious during the first few days of fever and illness, infants and children should be kept at home and away from other children and adults until their temperature returns to normal and they feel better.

Frequent hand-washing is important to prevent spreading or contracting the infection. Avoiding close contact with people who have a respiratory infection.

Getting your child vaccinated for diphtheria, Haemophilus influenza (Hib), and measles can protect children from some of the most dangerous forms of croup. 

Further information and support

Healthline
Free phone: 0800 611 116
Website: www.healthline.govt.nz

PlunketLine
Free phone: 0800 933 922
Website: www.plunket.org.nz 

References

Mayo Clinic Staff (2013). Diseases and conditions: Croup (Web Page). Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research.
Ministry of Health (2014). Conditions and treatments: Croup (Web Page). Wellington: Ministry of Health.
O’Toole, M.T. (Ed.) (2013). Croup. Mosby’s Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing & Health Professions (9th ed.). St Louis: Elsevier Mosby.
PubMed Health (2012). Croup (Web Page). Bethesda: U.S. National Library of Medicine. 

Created: May 2014 

Go to our Medical Library Index Page to find information on other medical conditions.