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Ankylosing spondylitis (arthritis)


Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a form of inflammatory arthritis that affects the spine and sacroiliac joints (the joints in the lower back). Symptoms include chronic (long-term) inflammation, causing pain and stiffness in the back. In severe cases, the affected joints in the spine may become fused causing them to become inflexible and leading to a loss of movement in the spine. There may also be deformity or curving of the spine. 

In most cases ankylosing spondylitis is a mild condition but, when severe, it can be debilitating. Treatment aims to minimise symptoms and prevent complications. Ankylosing spondylitis can occur at any age, including in children. However, it is most likely to develop between the ages of 13 and 35 years and is uncommon after the age of 40 years. It affects men approximately three times more often than women. 

Signs and symptoms

Ankylosing spondylitis belongs to a group of inflammatory arthritic conditions of the spine called spondyloarthropathies. Unlike most other types of arthritis where the inside of the joint is inflamed, the spondyloarthropathies involve inflammation on the outside of the joint where the ligaments, joint capsule and tendons attach to bone (enthesis). In AS there is inflammation of the enthesis around the spinal and sacroiliac joints.

The most common early symptoms of AS are pain and stiffness in the back and neck. These are usually most noticeable in the early morning and tend to wear off during the day and with activity. Symptoms tend to develop gradually over a period of weeks or months but can sometimes develop rapidly.

AS can affect any part of the spine and may progress to the ribcage, causing chest pain that may be confused with angina or pleurisy. Sometimes joints such as the knee and tendons, especially around the ankle, can be affected.

AS is a systemic condition, meaning it can have an impact on the whole body. Fatigue is commonly experienced and other symptoms may include mild fever, loss of appetite (with resulting weight loss) and night sweats.

In as many as 40% of patients inflammation of the eye, known as uveitis, is experienced. Up to 10% of patients may experience inflammation of the jaw. This can lead to difficulty with opening the mouth fully, making eating problematic.  In rare cases AS can be associated with problems in other parts of the body, including the heart, kidneys, lungs and nerves at the base of the spine.

AS is characterised by periods in which symptoms are absent (remission) and periods in which symptoms are problematic (relapses).

Causes

The exact cause of ankylosing spondylitis is unclear. It is thought to be an autoimmune disease - where the body’s own immune system attacks the body’s tissues causing inflammation and tissue damage.

Genetic (inherited) factors appear to influence development of AS. Approximately 90% of people diagnosed with AS have a gene called HLA-B27. However only about 10 – 15% of people with the gene will go on to develop AS. Approximately one in five individuals with AS also has a relative with the condition.

There is some evidence that exposure to a certain intestinal bacteria stimulates an abnormal immune reaction, which results in the development of AS. Environmental factors may also play a role. 

Diagnosis

Early diagnosis of AS is important if fusion of the joints and permanent stiffening of the spine are to be avoided. It can be difficult to diagnose in the early stages as symptoms may be attributed to more common causes of back pain.   A doctor will evaluate the following when diagnosing the condition:

  • A full medical history, including any family history of AS
  • Discussion of current symptoms including a history of back pain
  • The age of the patient when the pain started
  • Physical assessment
  • X-rays
  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
  • Blood tests – which may show the presence of the HLA-B27gene, a raised ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate) and a reactive protein which indicates inflammation.

In order for a diagnosis of AS to be made, a referral to a rheumatologist - who specialises in treating arthritis – may be recommended. 

Treatment

While AS cannot be cured, treatment aims to minimise the symptoms and prevent long-term complications such as fusion of the joints. A number of different medical professionals may be involved in treatment, including GP, rheumatologist, orthopaedic specialist, physiotherapist, occupational therapist, and podiatrist.  Essentially the goals of treatment are to:

  • Reduce inflammation
  • Reduce pain
  • Maintain mobility

To achieve these goals a combination of treatments is usually recommended. These include:

Medications
Medications used in the treatment of AS include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) which work by treating pain and inflammation. These are vital in the treatment of AS and are usually very effective. Larger doses than normal are often required in the treatment of AS. Pain relieving medications such as paracetamol may also be effective.   Steroid medications may also be used to reduce inflammation. They can be given by tablet or may be injected directly into an inflamed joint.  Biologic medications, known as “disease modifying medicines”, may be used in the treatment of severe AS. These medications are given by injection. The biologic medications that can be used for AS include adalimumab, etanercept and infliximab.

Exercise
Exercise is vital in the management of AS — especially exercise that maintains movement of the spinal joints and strengthens the muscles in the back and neck. Swimming is often recommended as it exercises all of these joints and muscles. A physiotherapist can recommend an appropriate exercise regime. Individuals with AS also need to have periods of rest and avoid exhaustion.

Posture
Maintaining correct posture is vital for people with AS. Keeping the spine straight plays an important role in preventing complications. Using a firm mattress without pillows can help maintain correct posture when sleeping

Surgery
Severe disability and deformity are unusual in AS but in cases where pain is extreme and deformities are disabling, surgery may be appropriate. Commonly this involves hip joint replacements. However, surgery to help straighten the spine may be required if curvature of the spine is severe.

Alternative therapies
Some people find therapies such as homeopathy, acupuncture and naturopathy are helpful in managing the symptoms of AS. Practising relaxation techniques such as deep breathing and meditation may also prove helpful

Not smoking, maintaining a healthy body weight and having a healthy balanced diet are also important factors in managing the condition. 

Further support

Ankylosing spondylitis cannot be prevented but in most cases an independent life can be maintained. Research is continuing to try to understand the development of the disease so that in time a cure may be possible.  For further information and support please contact your GP or practice nurse, or contact Arthritis New Zealand:

Arthritis New Zealand
PO Box 10-020
Wellington
Freephone: 0800 663 463 
Website: www.arthritis.org.nz

For branch offices please refer to the local telephone directory or the Arthritis New Zealand website. 

References

Arthritis New Zealand (2011) Ankylosing spondylitis (Pamphlet) Wellington. Arthritis New Zealand (Inc)
Barone, J. (2006) Ankylosing Spondylitis. The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Third Edition. Jacqueline L. Longe, Editor. Farmington Mills, MI. Thompson Gale.
Gill, M. (ed.) (2000) HLA-B27 antigen (human leucocyte antigen B27). In Gill, M. A handbook for the interpretation of laboratory tests (3rd ed.) (p213) Auckland: Diagnostic Medlab Ltd.
Hoi, A and Littlejohn, G (2002) Management of Ankylosing Spondylitis. New Ethicals Journal, July, p49
Schiller, A.L. & Teitelbaum, S.L. (1999) Bones and joints. In E. Rubin & J.L. Farber (eds.) Pathology (3rd ed.) (pp1336 – 1413) Philadelphia: Lippencott-Raven Publishers
Wellington Regional Rheumatolgy Unit (Date unknown) Ankylosing spondylitis Wellington: New Zealand Rheumatology Association.

Last Reviewed – July 2013 

 

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