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Southern Cross Medical Library

Southern Cross Medical Library information is necessarily of a general nature. Always seek specific medical advice for treatment appropriate to you. For more articles go to the Medical Library index page.

A common disease of the skin, caused by hair follicles becoming blocked.
Inflammation of the appendix causing pain to the lower right side of the abdomen
A disorder characterised by hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity.
A common and highly infectious viral disease.
The surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis.
A condition that causes redness, grittiness and discharge from the eyes.
An infection of the upper airways with a characteristic barking cough that occurs primarily in children.
Frequent, loose and watery bowel motions.
Atopic dermatitis causes skin to become itchy, red, swollen and painful.
The irritation of the digestive track caused by a viral, bacterial, or parasitic infection.
An infectious illness characterised by fluid-filled blisters on hands, feet and inside the mouth.
A group of cancers that originate in the bone marrow and cause abnormal blood cell production. 
A condition that causes earache, blockage and fluid discharge from the ear
Intoeing (pigeon toes) refers to feet that point inwards.
A common and usually mild viral illness.
A common childhood viral infection with a characteristic red facial rash.
Bacterial infection of the throat causing sore throat.
Inflammation of the tonsils causing sore throat and other symptoms.
A male newborn disorder where one or both testicles don’t descend to the scrotum.
Urine flows back from the bladder to the kidneys, potentially causing infection and damage.
A highly infectious, bacterial respiratory disease.
The most commonly diagnosed cancer among New Zealand women.
A procedure to reduce the size and/or reshape the breasts.
The development of cancerous tumours from abnormal cell growth in a woman's cervix.
A minor surgical procedure used to diagnose and/or treat conditions which affect the uterus.
A procedure to remove the endometrium from the uterus to treat abnormal uterine bleeding.
A reasonably common condition where the tissue that lines the uterus grows outside the uterus.
Simple changes to what you eat can reduce your risk of heart attack.
Lower your risk of heart attacks and strokes, lose weight and enhance general health and wellbeing.
High blood cholesterol is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke.
Raised blood pressure is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke.
Therapy to bolster declining oestrogen and/or progesterone hormone levels during early menopause.
The surgical removal of the uterus.
The years when a woman's ovaries gradually begin to produce fewer eggs and less female hormones.
The unplanned loss of a foetus during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy.
Abnormal development of tissue around a fertilised egg causing miscarriage. 
The development of cysts in the ovaries, causing a range of hormonal and metabolic effects.

The risk of heart disease – the biggest killer of smokers in NZ - falls after you quit.

The physical or emotional response to pressures which can have health impacts.
A form of contraception where the fallopian tubes are permanently blocked or cut.

Infections causing a painful, burning sensation when passing urine.

The surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis.

As men age their prostate gland enlarges which can cause urination, bladder and kidney problems.

Simple changes to what you eat can reduce your risk of heart attack.
Lower your risk of heart attacks and strokes, lose weight and enhance general health and wellbeing.
High blood cholesterol is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke.
Raised blood pressure is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke.
The collection of fluid in the membranes surrounding the testicles, causing scrotum swelling.
A treatment option for prostate cancer, implanting radioactive seeds in the prostate gland.
The most commonly diagnosed cancer among New Zealand men.
The physical or emotional response to pressures which can have health impacts.
A male newborn disorder where one or both testicles don’t descend to the scrotum.
An abnormal enlargement of veins around the testicles, similar to varicose veins in the legs.

A sterilisation procedure for men.

A form of arthritis characterised by long-term pain and stiffness in the back.
A condition caused by gluten intolerance that damages the small intestine.
A chronic (long-term) inflammatory disease of the bowel (intestines).
A disorder characterised by elevated blood glucose which contributes to long term complications.
A reasonably common condition where the tissue that lines the uterus grows outside the uterus.
A rare disorder that may cause muscle weakness or paralysis of limbs, face and respiratory system.
A rare inflammatory muscle disease that causes weakness in various parts of the body.
A condition that causes inflammation and deformity of the joints.
A long-term autoimmune disease that damages healthy skin, muscles and joints.
A disease which causes swelling, ulceration and loss of function of the colon.
Solid material forming in the kidney that can cause severe pain.
A non-invasive alternative to surgery for kidney stones.
A kidney disorder characterised by swelling of body tissue, leading to kidney failure.

Infections causing a painful, burning sensation when passing urine.

An abnormal bulging of the body’s largest artery which, if ruptured, is potentially fatal.
The formation of blood clots in major veins which can dislodge causing serious complications.
A disorder characterised by elevated blood glucose which contributes to long term complications.
Artery inflammation that can cause headaches and blurred vision.
A disorder involving the excessive absorption and inappropriate storage of iron.
High blood cholesterol is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke.
Raised blood pressure is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke.
The lack of iron affects the blood’s ability to transport oxygen, causing fatigue and other problems.
A group of cancers that originate in the bone marrow and cause abnormal blood cell production. 
Affects blood circulation in fingers and toes when exposed to cold, temperature change or stress.
Damage to brain cells as a result of disruption of blood / oxygen supply.
Veins that appear as bluish-green lines, which may bulge or appear twisted and contorted.
Vitamin B12 is necessary for red blood cell production and maintaining nerve cell health.
The most common form of dementia, characterised by loss of intellectual capacity and function.
A disorder characterised by hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity.
The sudden onset of facial nerve paralysis causing muscle weakness on one side of the face.
Cerebral palsy is an umbrella term for disorders caused by brain damage which affects the ability to control movement.

A disorder of the nervous system, typically causing burning pain and other symptoms.

The involuntary shaking of parts of the body, sometimes mistaken for Parkinson's.
A rare disorder that may cause muscle weakness or paralysis of limbs, face and respiratory system.
A rare neurological disorder characterised by recurrent episodes of excessive sleep and altered behaviour.
The progressive and fatal degeneration of specialised nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord.
A disease of the central nervous system that affects movement, sensation and body functions.
Development of tumours on nerves or skin which can affect the way the body functions.
A progressive, degernative brain disorder characterised by tremors, stiffness and slowness of movement.
A condition of the central nervous system that affects 25% of polio survivors.
Damage to brain cells as a result of disruption of blood / oxygen supply.
The most common yet least dangerous type of skin cancer.
A cancer that affects the digestive system; one of New Zealand's most common cancers.
The most commonly diagnosed cancer among New Zealand women.
The development of cancerous tumours from abnormal cell growth in a woman's cervix.
A group of cancers that originate in the bone marrow and cause abnormal blood cell production. 
Lung cancer is primarily caused by cigarette smoking and is usually fatal.
A serious form of skin cancer that kills 300 New Zealanders each year.
The most commonly diagnosed cancer among New Zealand men.
Inflammation of the appendix causing pain to the lower right side of the abdomen
A cancer that affects the digestive system; one of New Zealand's most common cancers.
A condition caused by gluten intolerance that damages the small intestine.
A chronic (long-term) inflammatory disease of the bowel (intestines).
Frequent, loose and watery bowel motions.
Gallstones can cause infection and inflammation to parts of the digestive system.
The irritation of the digestive track caused by a viral, bacterial, or parasitic infection.
Swollen and inflamed veins in the rectum or anus.
A painful burning sensation in the chest related to digestive system problems. 
When abdominal contents protrude through a weakened area of abdominal muscle.
A common disorder of the intestine that can cause bloating, abdominal pain and alternating constipation and diarrhoea.
A common and highly infectious virus that causes gastroenteritis.
A disease which causes swelling, ulceration and loss of function of the colon.
An infection of the upper airways with a characteristic barking cough that occurs primarily in children.
A viral infection with flu-like symptoms that can persist for several weeks.
Reaction to common allergens in the environment such as pollen, dust mites, mould or animals.
A common viral infection affecting  the nose, throat and lungs
A condition that causes earache, blockage and fluid discharge from the ear
Infection of the skin in the outer ear canal, sometimes referred to as swimmer’s ear.
The inflammation of the lining of one or more of the nasal sinuses, most often caused by infection.
Bacterial infection of the throat causing sore throat.
Inflammation of the tonsils causing sore throat and other symptoms.
Inflammation of the eyelids, mainly affecting the area where the eyelashes grow.
Clouding of the lens which, if left untreated, will eventually lead to blindness.
A condition that causes redness, grittiness and discharge from the eyes.
Glaucoma is an eye disease in which gradual damage to the optic nerve leads to vision loss.
Laser eye surgery for correcting short and long-sightedness, astigmatism and presbyopia.
Macular degeneration is a chronic disease that results in vision loss in the centre of a person’s field of vision.
A benign growth in the eye that can obscure vision and may require surgery.
Chest discomfort or pain that results from reduced blood flow to the heart muscle.
Procedure to widen, and keep open, coronary arteries narrowed by coronary heart disease.
A condition reducing blood flow to the heart muscle, pain, rhythm disturbances or heart attack.
Simple changes to what you eat can reduce your risk of heart attack.
Lower your risk of heart attacks and strokes, lose weight and enhance general health and wellbeing.
When blood flow to the heart is blocked, causing damage to heart muscle.
High blood cholesterol is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke.
Raised blood pressure is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke.
Inflammation of the airways of the lungs, usually as the result of viral infection.
A bacterial infection of the skin and underlying tissue.
A common and highly infectious viral disease.
An infection of the upper airways with a characteristic barking cough that occurs primarily in children.
A common viral illness related to the chickenpox and glandular fever viruses.
A viral infection carried by mosquitoes in tropical areas like the Pacific Islands and South East Asia.
Frequent, loose and watery bowel motions.
The irritation of the digestive track caused by a viral, bacterial, or parasitic infection.
A viral infection with flu-like symptoms that can persist for several weeks.
An infectious illness characterised by fluid-filled blisters on hands, feet and inside the mouth.
A virus spread through infected blood or body fluids that can cause liver inflammation.
A virus spread through infected blood that can cause liver inflammation and chronic liver disease.
A common viral infection affecting  the nose, throat and lungs
A condition causing swelling around the brain, potentially leading to death or serious disability.
A rare and serious infectious condition of the lungs or skin caused by a fungus-like bacterium found in the soil.
A common and highly infectious virus that causes gastroenteritis.
Pneumonia is a serious and potentially fatal bacterial or viral infection of the lungs.
A common and usually mild viral illness.
A contagious skin disease caused by the scabies mite. Symptoms include itchy skin and rash.
A viral infection that causes a painful skin rash.
A common childhood viral infection with a characteristic red facial rash.
Bacterial infection of the throat causing sore throat.
Inflammation of the tonsils causing sore throat and other symptoms.
A long-term disease that causes the airways in the lungs to become inflamed making it hard to breathe.
A lung condition characterised by coughing up mucus.
Inflammation of the airways of the lungs, usually as the result of viral infection.
An infection of the upper airways with a characteristic barking cough that occurs primarily in children.
A common viral infection affecting  the nose, throat and lungs
Lung cancer is primarily caused by cigarette smoking and is usually fatal.
A rare and serious infectious condition of the lungs or skin caused by a fungus-like bacterium found in the soil.
Pneumonia is a serious and potentially fatal bacterial or viral infection of the lungs.

The risk of heart disease – the biggest killer of smokers in NZ - falls after you quit.

A highly infectious, bacterial respiratory disease.
From mild pain and swelling to more serious anaphylactic reactions.
A condition characterised by long-term debilitating fatigue that may affect up to 20,000 New Zealanders.
Characterised by feeling "down" for several weeks or more.
The insufficient production of hormones that regulate growth, development and metabolism.
The physical or emotional response to pressures which can have health impacts.
Tendon fibres tear (partially or completely) causing pain and loss of function.
An overuse injury where the Achilles tendon becomes inflamed, causing pain and swelling.
A form of arthritis characterised by long-term pain and stiffness in the back.
The enlargement of the big toe joint causing inflammation and pain, leading to arthritis.
Inflammation of fluid-filled bursae that cushion movement around the joints.
A disorder causing pain and limiting use of the hand and wrist.
The degeneration of discs and vertebrae at the top of the spinal column.
Cartilage inflammation where ribs attach to the breastbone causing chest pain.
Long-term muscle pain and fatigue most commonly diagnosed in women aged 30 to 45 years.
A common and painful form of arthritis, most often affecting the big toe.
Spinal discs rupture and bulge, putting pressure on nerves causing pain.
Muscle, joint, tendon or nerve pain/discomfort related to repetitive activities.
The most common form or arthritis, causing cartilage breakdown in the joints.
A disease that weakens the bones, increasing the risk of fracture.
Tissue in the palm of the hand becomes tight and shortened, contracting the fingers inwards.
Inflammation of tough fibrous tissue running along the sole of the foot, leading to heel pain.
An arthritic condition characterised by severe pain and stiffness in various muscles.
A rare inflammatory muscle disease that causes weakness in various parts of the body.
A condition that causes inflammation and deformity of the joints.
Pain associated with the sciatic nerve which runs from the lower spine to the lower legs
A condition caused by repetitive activities that place strain on the forearm muscles.
Replacement of the hip joint with an artificial joint following arthritis or fracture.
Replacing a knee joint impaired by arthritis or wear-and-tear with an artificial joint.
A common disease of the skin, caused by hair follicles becoming blocked.
The most common yet least dangerous type of skin cancer.
A bacterial infection of the skin and underlying tissue.
A common and highly infectious viral disease.
Atopic dermatitis causes skin to become itchy, red, swollen and painful.
A skin condition characterised by numerous small, rough bumps on the skin.
A serious form of skin cancer that kills 300 New Zealanders each year.
A rare and serious infectious condition of the lungs or skin caused by a fungus-like bacterium found in the soil.
Infection of the skin in the outer ear canal, sometimes referred to as swimmer’s ear.
A chronic inflammatory skin disease characterised by redness and flaky silver-white patches.
A skin condition commonly characterised by a red facial rash.
A common and usually mild viral illness.
A contagious skin disease caused by the scabies mite. Symptoms include itchy skin and rash.
A viral infection that causes a painful skin rash.
A common childhood viral infection with a characteristic red facial rash.
A sleeping disorder characterised by poor quality or quantity of sleep.
A rare neurological disorder characterised by recurrent episodes of excessive sleep and altered behaviour.
Uncontrollable and sudden daytime sleep attacks.
A condition in which a person stops breathing during sleep.
The sound made by the throat or nose vibrating when air passes through narrowed airways.