13 healthy changes you can make to lower your risk of cancer
Ana is in her 30s and believes "so far so good" in terms of her overall health. She hopes her "health account" is in the black: her weight is ok, she eats well, gets lots of sleep and doesn't smoke, but she could exercise more, and drink less alcohol.
Ana's health is important to her but sometimes she takes it for granted. At the back of her mind, the mother-of-two thinks about two dark questions - "what if I get cancer, and how would we cope?"
Many Kiwis have similar thoughts, especially because of the heightened awareness of our rates of prostate, breast and bowel cancer. New Zealand diagnoses for all three cancers have risen since 2013.1 There are about 63 new cancer cases registered every day.1
Cancer can affect anyone at any age, but when you're young, you expect your mind and body to keep up. Ana knows when she's ploughing through her 30 lengths at the pool she's putting health dollars in the bank. And when she's onto her third glass of wine she's taking them out.
It's a matter of making sure that your health balance is in the black, and that means looking after yourself now.
Some people will be more genetically protected from cancer than others, but evidence suggests we may be able to keep some of the bad genes turned off by living a healthy lifestyle.2
Here are 13 proven ways to lower your risk of cancer:
1. Keep physically active
By doing at least 2.5 hours of moderate physical activity every week, you can reduce your risk of getting a number of cancers including colon and postmenopausal breast cancer. A good way to achieve this is to aim for 30 minutes of activity five days a week. 3
2. Eat plenty of vegetables and fruit
Most diets that are protective against cancer are mainly made up from foods of plant origin.4 Eat at least five servings a day: at least three of vegetables and two of fruit.3 Vegetable and fruit intake can protect against lung cancer, colorectal cancer and other gastro-intestinal cancers.5
3. Watch your weight
Try to keep within your healthy height to weight ratio (BMI).6
Excess body fat is thought to increase inflammation and raise the level of substances in the body that promote cancer growth. There is evidence that being overweight or obese is a risk factor for colon, pancreas, kidney, oesophagus, endometrium, gall bladder and liver cancer, and breast cancer in postmenopausal women. 7
4. Nuts, seeds lean meats and fish
Eating at least two servings of legumes, nuts or seeds a day or at least one serving of fish and other seafood, can reduce the risk of getting some cancers. By contrast eating processed meat, and more than 500g cooked red meat each week, is linked with a higher risk of colorectal cancer.3
5. Limit intake of processed foods
Highly processed foods often have added fat, sugar and salt, but are low in beneficial nutrients, all of which can increase risk of disease.3
6. Cut back on sugar
If you lower the amount of sugar you eat to less than 10% of your total energy intake, you can reduce your risk of putting on excess body weight, which is a risk factor for cancer.3
7. Increase dietary fibre
Eating at least six servings of whole grain breads, cereals, rice and pasta per day can reduce your risk of getting bowel cancer.3 For men, the more fibre eaten means the lower the chance of getting prostate cancer. 8
8. Moderate intake of alcohol
Less is better, but try to drink no more than: two standard drinks a day for women and no more than 10 standard drinks a week; three standard drinks a day for men and no more than 15 standard drinks a week; and at least two alcohol-free days every week.9
9. Quit smoking
Smoking increases the risk of developing cancers of the lung, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus and pancreas.10 It causes one in four of all cancer deaths in New Zealand.11 Quitline can provide support, visit quit.org.nz.
10. Get screened regularly
Many cancers can be cured if they're found and treated in time. There are six free national screening programmes.12
11. Vaccinate against HPV
There are high-risk strains of human papilloma virus that can cause certain types of cancers, including cervical cancer. The HPV vaccine can protect against them.13
12. Reduce stress
Your mental health is a very important factor in keeping physically well. Worrying about what might happen can drain your hard earned "health dollars". Practising mindfulness is an effective way to reduce anxiety and depression and can even bolster your immune system.14 Talking to your GP or someone you trust can help too.
13. Be sun smart
Slip, slop, slap; keep out of the sun during the hottest part of the day and don't get burnt by the sun. Over 90% of all skin cancer cases in New Zealand are attributed to excess sun exposure.15
Last but not least, another good way to keep cancer concerns at bay is having good insurance cover if you do ever receive a cancer diagnosis.
Southern Cross' Cancer Assist plan provides a one-off payment over and above health insurance, when diagnosed with a qualifying cancer. Use the one-off payment of up to $300K, to spend on what's important at a time when it's needed most. The payment can be used to fund additional treatment. Find out more here.
Southern Cross Cancer Assist Article, Susie Hill, Health Navigator. Reviewed by Dr Janine Bycroft.
- Ministry of Health New Cancer Registrations 2014. http://www.health.govt.nz/publication/new-cancer-registrations-2014
- British Journal of Cancer http://www.nature.com/bjc/journal/v90/n2/abs/6601509a.html
- Eating and activity guidelines for New Zealand Adults. http://www.health.govt.nz/publication/eating-and-activity-guidelines-new-zealand-adults
- Food Nutrition Physical Activity and the Prevention of Cancer: A global perspective http://www.wcrf.org/sites/default/files/english.pdf
- Nutrition and the Burden of Disease New Zealand 1997-2011 http://www.moh.govt.nz/notebook/nbbooks.nsf/0/A8D85BC5BAD17610CC256D970072A0AA/$file/nutritionandtheburdenofdisease.pdf
- Guidance on Overweight, Obesity and Cancer Risk. Cancer Society. https://cancernz.org.nz/assets/Positions-Statements/Guidanceonoverwieght-obesityandcancer-risk-Jul2013-2-.pdf
- Overweight is an avoidable cause of cancer in Europe. IJC http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1097-0215(200002)9999:9999%3C::AID-IJC1053%3E3.0.CO;2-T/full
- Journal of Nutrition cited here: http://aucklandradiationoncology.co.nz/blog/2014/06/dietary-fibre-and-prostate-cancer-risk#.WV7ZNoR95EY
- Alcohol webpage. Ministry of Health. http://www.health.govt.nz/alcohol-and-drugs/alcohol
- Vineis, P., Alavanja, M., et al. (2004). Tobacco and cancer: recent epidemiological evidence. Journal of National Cancer Institute 96: 99-106.
- Laugesen, M. (2000). Tobacco Statistics 2000. Wellington: Cancer Society of New Zealand.
- Cancer webpage. Ministry of Health. http://www.health.govt.nz/your-health/conditions-and-treatments/diseases-and-illnesses/cancer
- HPV. Health Navigator. https://www.healthnavigator.org.nz/medicines/h/hpv-vaccine/
- Mindfulness Education Group. https://mindfulnesseducation.nz/new-zealand-research/
- Sun smart: https://auckland-northland.cancernz.org.nz/en/reducing-cancer-risk/what-you-can-do/sunsmart/about-skin-cancer/