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Blepharitis - causes, symptoms, treatment, prevention

 
Blepharitis is inflammation of the eyelids, mainly affecting the area where the eyelashes grow. Symptoms can include red, itchy and swollen eyelids. It is a common disorder that can occur in people of any age. Blepharitis can be a chronic (long-lasting) condition that can be difficult to treat.

Causes

Blepharitis occurs when the tiny oil glands located at the base of the eyelids do not work properly, but the exact cause is not known. The condition can worsen when a person rubs their slightly sore and inflamed eyelids, causing further irritation and more inflammation. Development of blepharitis may be associated with a combination of factors including:  

  • dandruff of the scalp and eyebrows (seborrhoeic dermatitis)
  • psoriasis, which is a common skin condition, which is a common skin condition, which is a common skin condition
  • excess growth of skin bacteria
  • rosacea, which is a skin condition that causes the face to turn red
  • allergies, especially to eye makeup and contact lens solutions.

Blepharitis can lead to complications, including the development of a sty (an infection of the eyelid oil glands), conjunctivitis (pink eye) and dry eye syndrome.

Symptoms

Typical signs and symptoms of blepharitis include:

  • eyelids that are red, itchy and swollen
  • eyes that feel gritty or burning
  • flaking of the skin around the eyes, similar to dandruff
  • formation of dandruff on the eyelashes
  • crusted eyelashes and eyelids ‘glued together’ on waking up.

Careful examination of your eyelids and eyes is usually sufficient for your doctor to diagnose blepharitis.

Treatment

Self-hygiene is often the only treatment necessary for blepharitis, initially to reduce the severity of symptoms and then to keep those symptoms under control. A three step process is sometimes recommended, involving warmth, gentle massaging and cleansing.

The warmth can be applied with a facecloth soaked in very warm water for a few minutes. Applying this to the eyes can loosen up oil that may be clogging the eyelid glands. Immediately following that, gently massage the closed eyelids with your finger to further loosen and push oil out from the glands. Finally, clean the eyelash area of the lids using a clean facecloth or cotton bud soaked in diluted baby shampoo. This routine can be repeated two times a day to help settle symptoms down and then daily, or every other day, to keep symptoms under control.

You should see your doctor if your blepharitis persists despite good eye hygiene. Your doctor may prescribe antibiotic eye drops, steroid eye drops or ointments, and/or lubricating eye drops or artificial tears.

Blepharitis associated with other diseases or conditions may be controlled by treating the underlying disease or condition.  Even with successful treatment, blepharitis often returns.

Prevention

Good self-hygiene will help prevent blepharitis, as will avoiding anything that causes or aggravates the condition.  Use of an anti-dandruff shampoo may help to prevent blepharitis if dandruff is contributing to the blepharitis.

References

Bernardes TF, Bonfioli AA. Blepharitis. Semin Ophthalmol. 2010;25(3):79-83.
O’Toole, M.T. (Ed.) (2013). Blepharitis. Mosby’s Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing & Health Professions (9th ed.). St Louis: Elsevier Mosby.
PubMed Health (2012). Blepharitis (Web Page). Eyelid inflammation. Bethesda: U.S. National Library of Medicine. [Accessed 12/02/14]

Created February 2014

 

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