A method developed in China for certain types of anaesthesia and treatment of various disorders by insertion of fine needles into specific areas of the body.
Tests (often skin tests) to determine a person’s reaction to some foreign substances that are normally harmless, but that produce reaction in some individuals.
The examination of blood vessels by injecting a dye into the blood stream and viewing its progress using X-rays or by observing blood flow with an MRI scanner. It is through this form of diagnosis that blockage in arteries, which can cause arterial diseases such as angina, heart attacks and some strokes, are located.
A procedure in which a long thin tube is inserted into an artery, and a balloon is then inflated in order to flatten a build up or blockage in the artery wall. Once a narrowing is located by angiography, angioplasty may be performed to cure the problem, or a stent may be required to keep the artery open.
The study and testing of hearing, and the provision of hearing aids.
The testing of hearing with an audiometer, whereby hearing impairments can be measured.
Brain stem evoked response
A test for evaluating hearing loss in certain circumstances. Electrodes attached to the skull monitor the brain’s response to sound.
A procedure in which a catheter (tube) is inserted into an arm or leg vein, through which it travels to the heart. A dye is injected through the catheter and can be seen clearly by X-ray. In this way, doctors can observe the inside of the arteries of the heart and check for abnormalities, especially narrowings or blockages.
The injection of substances into the blood stream with the intention of relieving blockages in blood vessels.
The treatment of disease (especially of cancer) using chemical compounds (drugs).
CT scan (computerised tomography scan)
Special X-rays that produce cross-sectional images of body tissues. CT scans are used to investigate many different parts of the body.
ECG (electrocardiograph or cardiograph)
A tracing of the electrical activities of the heart muscles by means of an electrocardiogram, which is connected to sensors placed on the body. This procedure is used to detect and monitor suspected heart disorders.
Monitoring the electrical activity of the heart muscles while the heart is under stress, usually induced by the subject walking on a treadmill.
A tracing of the electrical activity of the brain by means of an electroencephalograph connected to the sensors placed on the scalp. In this way, certain conditions such as epilepsy, brain tumours and other diseases or injuries to the brain can be diagnosed.
The recording, by means of fine needles inserted into muscles, of electrical currents generated into the muscles. This is used in the diagnosis of muscle and nerve disorders.
Photographs of the back of the eye, taken after a fluorescent dye is placed in the blood stream. This is used to test the circulation in the retina of the eye.
ECG recorded over 24 hours to monitor heart rhythms. A small recording device is worn by the individual.
Surgery using small incisions that allow for fine surgical instruments and a miniature camera to be inserted into the body. Surgeons are then able to inspect internal organs and to carry out Operations with minimal disturbance to the surrounding tissues.
A procedure involving the breaking up of kidney stones without surgery by using high energy sound waves.
An X-ray technique for visualisation of the female breast, used to detect disease.
MRI Scan (Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scan)
An advanced method of viewing tissues of the body using a powerful magnetic field. A variety of conditions affecting practically any part of the body can be diagnosed using this method.
An imaging procedure that views various parts of the body by injecting a very small dose of a radioactive substance into a vein. Different isotopes concentrate in different organs, and these concentrations are displayed.
The branch of medicine concerned principally with the management of pregnancy and labour.
Diagnosis and treatment of cancer.
During heart surgery, blood is detoured outside the body through a machine in order to bypass the heart, allowing surgery to proceed. The perfusionist is the person who monitors and controls the flow of blood through this machine.
Surgically implanted artificial parts of the body, such as replacement hips or knees.
Specific treatment of diseases such as cancer using high energy X-rays.
A treatment that deprives an individual of the ability to reproduce, commonly achieved by division of the fallopian tubes in women (tubal ligation) or division of the vas deferens in men (vasectomy).
Implanted in the jaw during reconstruction or in preparation for capping teeth. Titanium implants are put in place in the jaw and the caps are screwed onto them.
The study of the ear drum.
A procedure used to view the internal organs of the body using ultrasonic waves (high frequency sound waves). It is used to investigate many conditions or suspected disorders, or to view a baby in the womb.
Tests of urine flow and pressure, carried out to establish bladder function.
Electromagnetic radiations that, because of their penetrating power, are used to record on film shadows of the varying densities within a part of the body.